What's New

January 2021: We are pleased to announce that Mangalam Research Center has been awarded a Digital Humanities Advancement Grant from the National Endowment for the Humanities in support of the Buddhist Translators’ Workbench project (HAA-277246-21). The grant will help build a Natural Language Processing infrastructure for the exploration of Buddhist Sanskrit lexical semantics through word embedding models.


The Buddhist Translators Workbench facilitates the translation and study of the Buddhist textual heritage through the development of lexicographic resources, corpora and corpus methods for classical Buddhist languages. So far, the project has focused on Sanskrit, one of the least resourced classical languages of Buddhism. We are currently developing the first processed corpus of Buddhist Sanskrit literature and using it to create a corpus dictionary, the Visual Dictionary and Thesaurus of Buddhist Sanskrit.


  • Ligeia Lugli, Ph.D., Project Director
  • Bruno Galasek-Hul, Ph.D., Senior Lexicographer
  • Luis Gamaliel Quiñones-Martinez, Lexicographer
  • Morgan Wells, Esq., Project Administrator


Lugli, Ligeia. Forthcoming. Words or terms? Models of terminology and the translation of Buddhist Sanskrit vocabulary. In Alice Collett (ed.) Buddhism and Translation: Historical and Contextual Perspectives, New York: SUNY. 

Lugli, Ligeia. 2019. Smart lexicography for low-resource languages: lessons learned from Buddhist Sanskrit and Classical Tibetan. Smart Lexicography: eLex 2019, 198–212.

Lugli, Ligeia. 2018. Drifting in Timeless Polysemy: Problems of chronology in Sanskrit lexicography. Dictionaries: Journal of the Dictionary Society of North America. Vol. 39 (1): 105-129. 

Lugli, Ligeia.  2015. Mapping meaning across cultures: a lexicographic resource for translators of Sanskrit Buddhist texts into English. Proceedings of the 9th International Conference of ASIALEX. 

Digital Outputs

Ongoing development: Visual Dictionary and Thesaurus of Buddhist Sanskrit (online interface) [https://mangalamresearch.shinyapps.io/VisualDictionaryOfBuddhistSanskrit/]

Ongoing development: Visual Dictionary and Thesaurus of Buddhist Sanskrit (dictionary data) [10.5281/zenodo.3716014]

Ongoing development: Meaning Mapper, a lexical annotation tool. [github.com/MangalamResearch-Lexicography/MeaningMapperApp]

Ongoing development: Buddhist Sanskrit Segmenter and Lemmatizer [10.5281/zenodo.3459218]

2017-2019 Meaning Mapper (chrome plug-in version) [https://github.com/mangalam-research/mmwp]

Ongoing development: Corpus of Buddhist Sanskrit Literature [10.5281/zenodo.3457821]

2012-2016 Buddhist Translator Workbench (early database & interface): [https://github.com/mangalam-research/btw]

2012-2016 Buddhist Translator Workbench (early dictionary data): [10.5281/zenodo.3605420


The Buddhist Translator Workbench was started thanks to funding from the National Endowment for the Humanities (HD-51383-11; HD-51772-13).

The corpus of Buddhist Sanskrit literature [10.5281/zenodo.3457821] and the Buddhist Sanskrit segmenter and lemmatizer [10.5281/zenodo.3459218were created by Ligeia Lugli with funding from the British Academy (NF161436) in 2018-2019 and subsequently expanded and refined with funding from the Mangalam Research Center for Buddhist Languages.

Additional funding from the National Endowment for the Humanities was awarded in 2021.

Other related links:

YouTube Channel: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCYIViaEY2GLqILki6ieYf3A?app=desktop